This is a searchable database of cohort studies and represents work examining several of the factors that are thought to have an impact on risk of dementia. It includes several of the key longitudinal studies but at present represents a fraction of the evidence base and is still under development.

Name of the studyStudy acronymExample of published outputLifestyle risk factors (smoking, excess alcohol, diet, obesity, sedantary behaviour, social engagement, brain training…etc)
Clinical risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, prior stroke)Environmental risk factors eg air pollutionOtherPubmed or other link
Aging, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)AgeCoDeproton pump inhibitor use; diabetes; stroke; ischemic heart disease; polypharmacyage; sex; depression
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohortARICKnopman, D., Boland, L., Mosley, M., Howard, G., Liao, D., Szklo, M., McGovern, P., Folsom, A., for the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study investigators. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Neurology. 2001; 56: 42-48;hypertension; prevalent diabetes; hyperlipidemia; prescription and non-perscription medications; Carotid wall IMT; stroke (prevalent and incident)
Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle AIBLEllis KA, Bush AI, Darby D, De Fazio D, Foster J, Hudson P, Lautenschlager NT, Lenzo N, Martins RN, Maruff P, Masters C, Milner A, Pike K, Rowe C, Savage G, Szoeke C, Taddei K, Villemagne V, Woodward M, Ames D and the AIBL Research Group. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging: methodology and baseline characteristics of 1112 individuals recruited for a longitudinal study of Alzheimer’s disease. International Psychogeriatrics 2009; 21: 672-687.Genetics; Cerebral microhaemorrhage; BP; vitamin B12; folate; anxietySubjective memory complaints
Betula studyBMIBlood pressure; cholesterol; glucose; HbA1c; TSH; thyroxine; B12; serum folate (B9); albumin; Hb; ESR.traffic air pollution (Nitrogen oxides level at residential address of participants at baseline);
Bordeaux regionalcohol
British male doctorsDoll, R., Peto, R., Boreham, J., Sutherland, I. Smoking and dementia in male British doctors prospective study. BMJ. 2000; 320: 1097-1102smoking
Cache County Memory StudyCCMSdiet; exercise; church attendance; social interaction; alcohol; smoking
Canadian Study of Health and AgingCSHAphysical activity (frequency and intensity); smoking; alcohol; limited dietary history; BMImedical history; medication use; stroke; diabetes; BP; heart problems; Parkinson’s disease; APOE; orthostatic hypotension; history of arterial hypertension; cardiac symptoms; current use of asprin and all NSAIDS; history of head trauma; arthritis; thyroid condition; cancer; stomach ulcers; antihypertensives; antacids; corticosteroids; estrogen replacement therapyoccupational and environmental exposurefamily history; depression;;;
Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study (nestled in Cardiovascular Health Study)education; occupation; physical activity; weight; alcohol intake; coffee; tea; antiperspirantsCVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, angina pectoris, claudication, angioplasty, or bypass surgery); APOE e4; C-reactive protein; hypertension; diabetes; cholesterolsecond hand smokeage; race; income; self reported health; depression
Cardiovascular Health StudyCHSMukamal, K., Kuller, L., Fitzpatrick, A., Longstreth, W., Mittleman, M., Siscovick, D. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of dementia in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 289: 1405-1413alcohol
Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. CAIDEBMIBP; cholesterol; smoking
Chicago Health and Aging ProjectCHAPsmoking
ChongquingJuan, D., Zhou, D., Li, J., Wang, J., Gao, C., Chen, M. A 2 year follow up study of cigarette smoking and dementia. Eur J Neurol. 2004; 11: 277-282smoking
Chongquing aging studyWang, J., Zhou, D., Li, J., Zhang, M., Deng, J., Tang, M., Gao, C., Li, J., Lian, Y. Leisure activity and risk of cognitive impairment: the Chongqing aging study. Neurology. 2006; 66: 911-913education; occupation; smoking; daily drinking; cognitive activities; physical activities; social activitiesNSAIDs; comorbiditiesage; sex; depression
Cleveland Study of the ElderlyFord, A., Mefrouche, Z., Friedland, R., Debanne, S. Smoking and cognitive impairment: A population-based study. JAGS 1996; 44: 905-909 smoking
Cognitive and Emotional Impairment After Stroke (NCT00506818)current smoking; daily alcohol use; BMI >25; physical activity (minutes per week)hypertension; hyperlipidemia; diabetes; coronary heart disease; atrial fibrillation; APOE e4
Copenhagen City Heart Studyalcohol (amount and type)
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young AdultsCARDIAReis J, Loria C, Luner L, Sidney S, Liu K, Jacobs D, Zhu N, Lloyd-Jones D, He K, Yaffe K. Cardiovascular health through young adulthood and cognitive functioning in midlife. Annals of Neurology 2013; 73:170-179BMI; diet; smoking; physical activityBP; cholesterol; glucose
DESCRIPAstudyphysical activity; obesity; smoking; mild/moderate alcohol usediabetes; hypertension; hypercholestolemia; coronary heart diseasedepression
Epidemiologic Catchment Area study (Baltimore arm)Leroi, I., Sheppard, J-M., Lyketsos, C. Cognitive function after 11.5 years of alcohol use: relation to alcohol use American Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 156 (8): 747-752alcohol
Epidemiology of Vascular AgingEVAalcohol; smokingBP; antihypertensive use;
European Community Concerted Action Epidemiology of Dementia (EURODEM)EURODEMeducation; smokinghead traumafamily history; sex;
Finnish Twin Cohortalcohol
Framingham StudyBMI;
Gospel Oak projectCervilla, J., Prince, M., Mann, A. Smoking, drinking, and incident cognitive impairment: a community based study included in the Gospel Oak project. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000; 68: 622-626 alcohol; smoking
HeinzNixdorfRecallparticulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides; long-term exposure to traffic noise (Lden, Lnight)
Hisayama Studyalcohol; physical activitystroke; BP; diabetesage; score on Hasegawa’s dementia scale; sex;
Honolulu-Asia Aging StudyHAASGalanis, D., Petrovitch, H., Launer, L., Harris, T., Foley, D., White, L. Smoking history in middle age and subsequent cognitive performance in elderly Japanese-American men. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 145: 507-515; Launer, L., Masaki, K., Petrovitch, H., Foley, D., Havlik,R. The association between midlife blood pressure levels and late-life cognitive function. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 274: (23) 1846-1851; Tyas, S., White, L., Petrovitch, H., Webster Ross, G., Foley, D., Heimovitz, H., Launer, L. Mid-life smoking and late-life dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Neurobiol Aging. 2003; 24: 589-596; Kalmijn S, Foley D, White L, Burchfiel C, Curb J, Petrovitch H, Ross G, Havlik R, Launer L. Metabolic cardiovascular syndrome and risk of dementia in Japanese-American Elderly men. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2000; 20: 2255-2260smoking; BMIBP; glucose; subsclapular skinfold thickness; triglycerides; cholesterol;;;
HoornReijmer Y, Berg E, Sonsbeek S, Dekker J, Nijpels G, Stehouwer C, Kappelle J, Biessels G. Dementia risk score predicts cognitive impairment after a period of 15 years in a nondemented population. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive disorders 2011; 31: 152-157
Hospital Morbidity Survey (National Statistics Institute)noise pollution (Leqd, Leqn); chemical pollution (NO2, PM2.5, PM10, O3); maximum daily temperature
InCHIANTI population–based studyLlewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, Muniz-Terrera G, Phillips CL, Cherubini A, Ferrucci L, Melzer D. Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jul 12;170(13):1135-41. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.173. PubMed PMID: 20625021; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4053858.serum 25 (OH) D levels
Intervention project on cerebrovascular disease and dementia in the district of EbersbergINVADEsmoking; physical activity; BMIBP; cholesterol; glucose
Kaiser Permanente Medical Care ProgramWhitmer R, Sidney S, Selby J, Johnston C, Yaffe K. Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology 2005; 64: 277-281smokingcholesterol; diabetes; hypertension
Kungsholmen ProjectalcoholBP; antihypertensive use; diabetes; stroke; heart failure;;;
Kuopio 75+ health studyeducation; smoking; BMIheart failure; stroke; NYHA class; resting heart rate; haemoglobin; creqatinine clearance; HDL-cholesterol; BNP; total cholesterol; hypertension; systolic or diastolic BPage; sex
LombardyCorrao G, Ibrahim B, Nicotra F, Zambon A, Merlino L, Pasini TS, Catapano AL, Mancia G. Long-term use of statins reduces the risk of hospitalization for dementia. Atherosclerosis. 2013 Oct;230(2):171-6. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.07.009. Epub 2013 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 24075740.statin type; months with statins available; antihypertensive agents; antidiabetic drugs; coronary heart disease; cerebrovascular disease; traumatic brain injury; Charlson comorbidity score
Maastricht Ageing StudyMAASalcohol; physical activity; Mediterranean diet; cognitive activity; smoking; BMI; unsaturated fat intakecoronary heart disease; renal dysfunction; diabetes; cholesterol; hypertension (BP or antihypertensive use)depression
MayoClinic Study of Agingeducation; marital status; BMI; current smokerAPOE (various types); dyslipidemia; type II diabetes; hypertension; any cardiac disease; atrial fibrillation; coronary artery disease; congestive heart failure; strokeage
Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing StudyCFASYip, A., Brayne, C., Matthews, F. Risk factors for incident dementia in England and Wales: The Medical Research Council cognitive function and ageing study. A population based nested case-control study. Age Ageing. 2006; 35: 154-160education; social class; rural/urban; alcohol; smokingvascular disease (angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, heart attack, hypertension, transient ischaemic attack, stroke); neurological/psychiatric disease (depression, epilepsy, headaches, head injury, Parkinson’s disease, Meningitis/encephalitis); arthritis; asthma; chronic bronchitis; diabetes; general anaesthesia; peptic ulcer disease; pernicious anaemia; shingles; thyroid diseaseage; sex; self-perceived health
Men born in 1914smoking; alcohol; cohabiting status (change in follow-up)BP; antihypertensive treatment; peripheral artery disease; ischemic heart disease; diabetes mellitus; myocardial infarction during follow-updepression
Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly of Boston StudyMOBILIZE Bostonlong-term exposure to traffic pollution (residential distance to major roadway); long-term black carbon levels
Monongahela Valley Independent Elders SurveyMoVIESGanguli, M., Vander Bilt, J., Saxton, J, Shen, C., Dodge, H. Alcohol consumption and cognitive function in late life: A longitudinal community study Neurology 2005; 65: 1210-1217alcohol
National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project cohort studyNSHAPexposures to fine particles (PM2.5); NO2
North Karelia Project and FIN-MONICABP; cholesterol; apoE; myocardial infarction; cerebrovascular symptoms;
Northern Manhattan StudyNOMASGardener H, Wright C, Dong C, Cheung K, DeRossa J, Nannery M, Stern Y, Elkind M, Sacco R. Ideal cardiovascular health and cognitive aging in the Northern Manhattan study. Journal of the American Heart Association 2016; 5: e002731 doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002731smoking; BMI; physical activity; dietBP; glucose; cholesterol
Nurses’ Health StudyNHSStampfer, M., Kang, J., Chen, J., Cherry, R., Grodstein, F. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women The New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352: 245-253alcohol
Nurses’ Health Study Cognitive Cohortlong-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution [PM2.5-10] and [PM2.5]
Personality And Total Health, Path through life studyPATHAnstey K, Sargent-Cox K, Garde E, Cherbuin N, Butterworth P. Cognitive development over 8 years in midlife and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Neuropsychology. 2014; 28(4): 653-65smoking; BMI; physical activity;BP; diabetesdepression
Personnes Agees QUIDPAQUIDLarrieu, S., Letenneur, L., Helmer, C., Dartigues, J-F., Barberger-Gateau, P. Nutritional factors and risk of incident dementia in the PAQUID longitudinal cohort The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 2004; 8(3): 150-154alcohol; fish intakevitamin E; vitamin A
Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease by Vitamin E and SeleniumPREADVISEeducation;baseline MIS; APOE-e4; hypertension; diabetes; sleep apnea; head injuryage; Black race
REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in StrokeREGARDSfine particle matter (PM2.5)
Rotterdam studyalcohol; smokingmedication use: diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, other antihypertensives; hypertensionsex;;;
Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and AgeingSALIApartical matter size fractions (PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5abs); nitrogen oxides; proximity to high traffic load
San Luis Valley Health ad Aging StudyHildreth K, Grigsby J, Bryant L, Wolfe P, Baxter J. Cognitive decline and cardiometabolic risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults in the San Luis Valley Health and Aging study. Journal of Behavioural Medicine 2014; 37:332-342obesity (waist circumference)diabetes; hypertension (BP or antihypertensive use)
Scottish Mental Survey 1947SMS 1947Starr, J., Deary, I., Fox, H., Whalley, L. Smoking and cognitive change from age 11-66 years: a confirmatory investigation. Addict Behav 2007: 32; 63-68smoking
Stroke Outpatient Clinic of Okayama University and affiliated hospitalseducation; BMI; abdominal circumfrance; smokingtime since previous stroke; previous stroke subtype; brain artery infarction; hypertension; dyslipidemia; diabetes; atrial fibrillation; ischemic heart disease; antiplatelet drugs; ARB; CCB; statin; EPA; Endo-PAT (RHI, AI); MRI data (PVH, DWMH, MBs)age; sex
Study of Osteoporotic FracturesSOFBarnes, D., Cauley, J., Lui, L., Fink, H., McCulloch, C., Stone, K., Yaffe, K. Women who maintain optimal cognitive function into old age. JAGS 2007; 55: 259-264walking; smoking; alcohol; physical tests (chair stand, walking speed, grip strength); IADL; social networkstroke; diabetes; hypertension; visionfall; self-rated health; depression
Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Women Cognitive Impair-
ment Study of Exceptional Aging
SOF WISEphysical activity (number of city blocks typically walked per day)
Supplementation en vitamines et mineraux antioxydant study.SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX 3Andreeva V, A, Whegang-Youdom S, Touvier M, Assmann K, E, Fezeu L, Hercberg S, Galan P, Kesse-Guyot E, Midlife Dietary Vitamin D Intake and Subsequent Performance in Different Cognitive Domains. Ann Nutr Metab 2014;65:81-89; Kesse-Guyot E, Andreeva V, Lassale C, Hercberg S, Galan P. Clustering of midlife lifestyle behaviours and subsequent cognitive function: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health 2014; 104: e170-e177physical activity; sedentary behaviour; smoking; alcohol; fish/seafood; fruit/vegetablelifetime sun exposurevitamin D intake as part of trial;
Suwon Longitudinal Aging StudySLASLee Y, Kim J, Back J. The influence of multiple lifestyle behaviours on cognitive function in older persons living in the community. Preventive Medicine. 2009; 48: 86-90physical activity; smoking; vegetable consumption; social activity; alcohol
Sydney Older Persons StudyBroe, G., Creasey, H., Jorm, A., Bennett, H., Casey, B., Waite, L., Grayson, D. Health habits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age: A prospective study on the effects of exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 1998; 22: 621-623; Piguet, O., Grayson, D., Creasey, H., Bennett, H., Brooks, W., Waite, L., Broe, A. Vascular risk factors, cognition and dementia incidence over 6 years in the Sydney Older Persons Study. Neuroepidemiology; 2003; 22: 165-171smoking; exercise; alcoholhypertension; heart disease; stroke; cholesterol; diabetes; myocardial infarction; atrial fibrillation; global arteriopathy score; claudication;
The Dubbo StudySimons, L., Simons, J., McCallum, J., Friedlander, Y. Lifestyle factors and risk of dementia: Dubbo study of the elderly. Medical Journal of Australia 2006; 184 (2): 68-70married; education; alcohol; smoking; gardening; walking; ADLsstroke; coronary heart disease; antihypertensive use; diabetes; peak expiratory flow; cholesterolself-rated health; depression
The Longitudinal Population Study of Goteborg, SwedenBP
UK Medical Research Council General Practice Research FrameworkMRC GPRFCervilla, J., Prince, M., Joels, S., Lovestone, S., Mann, A. Long-term predictors of cognitive outcome in a cohort of people with hypertension. British Journal of Psychiatry 2000; 177: 66-71; Prince, M., Lewis, G., Bird, A., Blizard, R., Mann, A. A longitudinal study of factors predicting change in cognitive test scores over time, in an older hypertensive population. Psychol Med. 1996; 26: 555-568alcohol; smoking; BMI; education; diet; social class; NART scores; premorbid IQ; RM parts A and BBP; cholesterol; arrhythmia; ischaemia; ApoE; fibrinogen; antidepressants; antihypertensivescurrent residencefamily history (dementia, heart disease, stroke); age at entry; sex; self-rated depression;;
Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult MenULSAMBMI; smokingBP; glucose; cholesterol
Veterans Affairs Normative Aging StudyVAtelomere length; C-reactive protein; single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/mutations in HFEBlack Carbon exposure; traffic-related air pollution (black carbon exposure)age;;
Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging ProjectWHICAPsmoking; BMI; alcohol; Mediterranean-type diet; physical activity; central obesityhypertension (BP or self-reported or use of antihypertensives); heart disease; diabetes; cholesterol; stroke;;;;;;
Whitehall II cohortsmoking; alcohol; physical activity; diet (fruit/veg)particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 from all sources and from traffic exhaust);;
Women’s Health and Aging Study IWHAS IAtkinson, H., Cesari, M., Kritchevsky, S., Pennix, B., Fried, L., Guralnik, J., Williamson, J. Predictors of combined cognitive and physical decline. JAGS. 2005; 53: 1197-1202smoking; education; ADL; IADLnumber of diseases; pulmonary disease; hemoglobinphysical decline (walking speed); age; race; baseline MMSE
Women’s Health Initiative Memory StudyWHIMSalcohol
Women’s Healthy Ageing ProjectWHAPSzoeke CE, Robertson JS, Rowe CC, Yates P, Campbell K, Masters CL, et al. The Women’s Healthy Ageing Project: Fertile ground for investigation of healthy participants ‘at risk’ for dementia. International Review of Psychiatry 2013;25(6):726-37. doi: 10.3109/09540261.2013.873394.Education; physical activitycholesterol; Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; hypertension
Zutphen Elderly StudyLauner, L., Feskens, E., Kalmijn, S., Kromhout, D. Smoking, drinking and thinking. The Zutphen elderly study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1996; 143: 219-227smoking; alcohol;